Please answer the following questions related to the content of (9/26 – 10/2) Module 6: Colonial Institutions in New Spain. For full credit, make sure that you post (written or video) your reflection answers AND positively reply to at least one other classmate. Subscribe to this Discussion Board for notifications.
Refection: Write 1 paragraph for each question (4 -6 sentences / 250 + word count X 2, as there are two questions). Use parenthetical citations when referencing the lecture PPT, for example use (Mod 6) for Module 6 lecture and reference the name of the reading articles and the title of the video clips when citing those resources.
Or, Create a Video response using Canvas Studio!!!
What did you find most interesting/thought-provoking/upsetting?
How does the content learned in this module connect to current events/issues?
How does the content learned in this module connect to you? (this is not a literal question. Think of gender roles, job specialization, trade as in shopping and technology, dogs, cats, and brewing beer)
Suggested Reply to your classmates:
What did they make note of?
Was their Reflection similar or different from your observations?
PSA #2: Spiritual Conquest
Instructions: Answer the provided prompt question using all of the required primary sources. This is not a research paper, so there is no need to internet references. Use the skills you developed from the previous primary source analysis to analyze the primary sources for this PSA Primary Source Analysis. The lecture PPT & readings should be used as well to assist with the analysis. If you do need more info, then use World History Encyclopedia (Links to an external site.), and use either the MLA or Chicago citation (Links to an external site.) for using information from this website. I recommend History majors to use Chicago Style, as this is what you will be using when you transfer to University.
This assignment is to be original work by the scholar. The primary sources & lecture are required to be cited in your paper, so I know where the information that you are discussing came from. Use parenthetical citations for the required primary source documents, ie, (Doc 1) or (Doc 3). There is nothing more beautiful for your instructor than to see citations ☺️
The submitted paper should be 2 pages long or around 500 word count. Please, there is no need for a cover page. All submissions are connected to you and your student ID, so I know it is you. And if you must use my name, at least spell it correctly, lol. And for conformity, use 12 point font, double-spaced, Times New Roman or another decent font.
Will the submission be perfect in analysis? No, and I am not expecting perfection. I am not perfect either. I want you to do your best. If you are having trouble, please ask me via email or check in with your classmates on the DB. This is not a competition with your classmates. But please do not copy and paste their work either, that is plagiarism.
So, deep breath and put on our detective hat and squeeze as much information out of the sources as possible. You got this!
The Spiritual Conquest
Prompt: Was the Spiritual Conquest successful and how did indigenous groups respond to it?
SBE submissions should have the following:
The main argument that answers the prompt question and that which you underline or highlight once in the introduction.
Use all 3 required primary sources.
Lecture PPT, video clips, and readings should be included.
Parenthetical citation for lecture PPT: (Mod. #) and for the required primary sources, use their Doc number in parenthetical citation, for example (Doc 1).
Have an introduction (which includes answer to the prompt), body paragraphs (analysis of the sources with support from the lecture PPT, readings, and videos), and a conclusion (which is just rewording your answer to the prompt and wrapping up the main ideas.
Required Primary Sources:
Doc 1: Francisco de los Angeles, Orders Give to the Twelve, 1523
“Wherefore, having knowledge of your good life and proof of your goodness, and having learned and known from your deeds that you are worthy of the banner of the King Of Glory, which you want to raise up in faraway places, and hold up and sustain, flourish and defend even unto death-therefore, confiding in the divine bounty, I send you to convert with words and example the people who do not know Jesus Christ Our Lord, who are held fast in the blindness of idolatry under the yoke of the satanic thrall, who live and dwell in the Indies which are commonly called Yucatan or New Spain or Tierra Firme. … And because you will for a long time endure such great hardships and continuous vigils and cares in carrying out and executing such a great commission and trust [converting the Mexica], do not let them weaken or exhaust your spirit, but rather find it realized and every day more renewed and more complete and fully availing itself of merit. … Go, therefore, my much beloved sons, with the blessing of your father, to carry out what I have commanded you; and armed with the shield of faith and with the breastplate of justice, with the blade of the spirit of salvation, with the helmet and lance of perseverance, struggle with that ancient serpent which seeks and hastens to lord himself over, and gain the victory over, the souls redeemed with the most precious Blood of Christ. And win them for that Christ in such a manner that among all Catholics an increase of faith, hope, and love may result; and to the perfidious infidels [Mexica] a road may be opened for them and pointed out; and the madness of heretical evil may fall apart and come to nothing; and the foolishness of the gentiles [Protestants] may be made manifest to them, and the light of the Catholic faith may shine forth in their hearts. And you shall receive the eternal kingdom.”
Excerpts taken from Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History, 62-64
Doc 2: Fray Jeronimo de Mendieta,“The Spiritual Conquest” (1550s)
“Although on the one hand these servants of God were heartily content at seeing how the people attended their sermons and listened to their doctrine, on the other hand they suspected that the Indians might be attending church merely to comply superficially with the orders given them by their nobles in order to deceive the friars, and that this might not be a sincere movement by the people to seek the remedy for their souls by renouncing the worship of the idols. And the friars persuaded themselves that this was indeed the case, for they were told that, while in public the Indians no longer made their old sacrifices, which usually involved the killing of men, in the secret spaces of the hills and in fearful, remote places, and at night in the temples of the demons which were still standing, they continued to make their sacrifices, and in the temples they performed their old ceremonies, chants, and drunken celebrations…the friars agreed to begin destroying the temples [in 1525], and not to stop until they were all burned to the ground and the idols likewise destroyed and eradicated, even though in doing this they would place themselves in mortal danger…The friars took with them the children and young men they had raised and instructed, the sons of the Indian lords and nobles…and they also received help from the common people who were already converted and wanted to prove that they were confirmed in the faith. And this they ordered done at a time when those who might have opposed them were distracted by other things. And since in most cases they used fire, which burned rapidly, there could be no resistance. And so fell the walls…with voices of praise and shouts of joy from the faithful children, while those who remained outside the faith were frightened and stupefied, and the wings of their hearts (as they say) were broken at seeing their temples and gods brought down. Regarding this heroic exploit, some [conquistadors] wished to argue with the friars by saying, first, that it was a rash deed, for it might anger and incite the Indians who might kill them; and second, that they could not in good conscience do such damage to the buildings they destroyed, and to the clothing and finery and things that decorated the idols and the temples that now burned and were lost…The friars, however, were not afraid, first because they were not afraid of dying for the love of God…But then the infidels [Mexicas], seeing their principal temples laid waste, lost hear in the performance of their idolatry, and from that time forward the way was opened to demolish what remained of idolatry.”
(Excerpt taken from The Mexico Reader, 117-119)
The following articles look at the interesting devotion to Santa Muerte (Saint Death) in Mexico. Though the articles are from the present they contain elements related to the Spiritual Conquest.
*Cult. Now, the term cult comes for the Latin cultus, meaning To Care For. Like Agriculture means Care For The Earth. For academics, we use this term for religious practitioners, so the Cult of Santa Muerte care for the saint by prayers and offerings.
Article 1: BBC News (Art 1)
This give a general overview of the Cult of Santa Muerte, from its historical roots in the worship of “Mictecacihuatl, an Aztec goddess who presided over a festival of death every August.”
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-41804243 (Links to an external site.)
Article 2: Catholic News Agency (Art 2)
This article provides a different opinion of the veneration of Santa Muerte from the current Catholic Church and provides us with understanding of persistence of the Spiritual Conquest.
https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/34832/have-you-heard-of-saint-death-dont-pray-to-her (Links to an external site.)