Categories
Anthropology

Look up our featured anthropologist – who is dr. ullah?

200 words minimum for each question, cite answers, and please use your own words, thank you.
A. The phases of human development are biologically defined. How, if at all, can they also be culturally defined?
B. Discuss how natural selection has likely influenced the evolution of skin color in humans
C. Look up our featured anthropologist – Who is Dr. Ullah? What does he study? Pick one of his publications and summarize it in your own words.
D. Look up our featured anthropologist – Who is Dr. Mathwich? Pick one of her publications and summarize it in your own words.

Categories
Anthropology

Pay attention to language and assumptions made in the film.

Attached is a FILM TRANSCRIPT. I cannot give access to the film itself because of the college credentials required. So I have attached the word-for-word transcript of the film here. The Only work cited to be used is the film itself called:
The Trees Have a Mother: Amazonian Cosmologies, Folktales, and Mystery
Film Critique Guidelines
Film responses should be 3 pages long. They should be typed and double-spaced. 12 pt. font Times New
Roman. Margins should not exceed 1.25 on either side.
Watch the films with an eye toward the theories and concepts from the course readings. View the film and
film events through the lens of world culture concepts in the course materials. Relate the film’s situations
or messages to our course concepts and to situations in the real world. What response is the film designed
to elicit from the viewer? Does the film take an ethnocentric view of the culture it chronicles or does it
work to keep out bias? Notice the cinematic tools, language, and visual effects which combine to elicit the
desired response from the audience.
Pay attention to language and assumptions made in the film. Pay attention to which questions the film
asks, which questions it answers and which questions it leaves unasked.
Your paper should briefly summarize the film content, analyze/critique the film’s message through an
anthropological/sociological lens/perspective using course concepts and materials, and reflect upon your
personal reaction to or opinion of the film and the issues it raises providing real world examples where
appropriate.The films are designed to complement or contrast with the course reading material. The chapters of reading in the text will have films to accompany the reading. Your papers will summarize and synthesize the ideas from the text and the films. Papers should be 3-4 pages. You should summarize/synthesize the material, reflect on the concepts and situations presented, and give an example of how these concepts operate in your life or thinking and/or in the lived reality of people affected by the situations.

Categories
Anthropology

Key terms & concepts*

this is a timed assignment it will be 10 questions and will be timed for 16 minutes i would be sending you all class notes and info needed when you are ready we will do the assignment live meaning i will post a screen shot question by question and you would be sending me a answer
info needed
Expected outcomes & Key terms and concepts
Expected Outcomes
Key Terms & Concepts*
Mod. 5: Geographic Diversification of Homo sapiens sapiens
a) Outline the immediate evolutionary history of Homo sapiens sapiens and explain (in relation to the concept of race) how humans populated our geographically diverse earth
b) Recount the history of the race concept as applied to human subgroups and explain the difference between biological race, racialism, and racism
c) Define geographic cline and explain the value of making geographic ancestry-based distinctions between subpopulations in certain limited circumstances
d) Explain the genetic argument against race, with reference to genetic variation within and between diverse groups
Replacement hypothesis, assimilation hypothesis
Multiple origins; Multiregional metapopulation (trellis, web) model (vs candelabra)
Neanderthal peoples
race vs. ethnicity
concordance / nonconcordance
racialization vs. racism
geographic clines
Melanin-Folate-Vitamin D model
Institutionalized racism

Categories
Anthropology

Blog lengths are variable, however, simply posting a link or picture with no explanation or discussion will not constitute a complete post.

you will post on your blog related to the course material for that week. Your
blogs should include links, research references, original analysis and questions/insights to spark
discussion. There will 6 total blogs.
1. The blog should reference course readings, films, and lectures. Failure to apply course
materials that are relevant to your subject will cost points in your grade.
2. Blogs should include material from outside the course. Links from the web, articles you have
discovered, graphics, cartoons, pictures, any sourcing which makes the blog more insightful and
interesting as well as being related to the course readings.
3. You should make sure that you reference the relevant course readings, class discussions and
considerations which have bearing on your chosen subject
4. Your blogs will be graded on thorough engagement with the subject matter, quality of research
and links provided, layout and comprehension of writing, and quality of responses to comments.
5. Blog lengths are variable, however, simply posting a link or picture with no explanation or
discussion will not constitute a complete post. In general posts should be several paragraphs in
length, though they may not be laid out in paragraph format.

Categories
Anthropology

However, i’m uploding two articles from my course that you can reflect on and relate to.

Learning Goal: I’m working on a anthropology writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
The paper should be at least 1,000 words (the equivalent of around 4-5 pages) and consist of two academic article comparisons, a short interview, and an analysis of the findings in connection with the course materials. This allows you to examine specific themes of interest in more detail and reflect on their relation to diversity and social justice, both from scholarly and real-world perspectives. However, I’m uploding two articles from my course that you can reflect on and relate to. these two were the topic in class so I want you to write on these Recreational tourism: Cancun (‘Gringolandia’
article) and Recreational tourism: History and approaches/Beaches (‘Sandy Beaches’ article). If you need any additonal information let me know please!

Categories
Anthropology

As you learned in your reading this week, the united states is a major consumerist nation.

Learning Goal: I’m working on a anthropology question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
Consumption and Exchange
As you learned in your reading this week, the United States is a major consumerist nation.
The readings for this week also include multiple examples of the ways in which economic production, consumption, and exchange link our lives to people who may live on the opposite side of the world from us.
For this discussion post, document your own economic activities for one day, from the moment you wake up, until your bedtime. Consider everything from your electricity in your home, to your furnishings, your food, your transportation, and all the ways your day-to-day living depends on people who likely live away from you.
In what ways is your day-to-day living dependent upon far-away people? How far away?
How might your consumption choices be connected to global economic inequality?
Have you ever considered this before, or is this a new way for you to consider your daily lifestyle?
As you read through your peers’ posts, comment on one that seems to differ from yours. Ask them what challenges they experience as a result of their production/consumption habits. Engage in a comparison/contrasting conversation with them in this regard.
Express your thoughts on this topic and try to incorporate as many concepts as you can from your readings.

Categories
Anthropology

…the evolutionary changes will not take place “in order to” help them survive — natural selection does not involve any plan or goal.

Learning Goal: I’m working on a anthropology writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
SCENARIO:
Imagine that there’s a species of lizard called fuzzy lizards. They are arboreal insectivores. Their color ranges from pale yellow to dark green, with each individual having a slightly different color within that range of colors. Fuzzy lizards spend their time in two different kinds of trees, emeraldeye trees and goldenwood trees, because it is only on these two kinds of trees that the lizards find the two kinds of insects they eat. Emeraldeye trees have dark green leaves on which can be found caterpillars that the fuzzy lizards like to eat. Goldenwood trees have pale yellow leaves that are home to a particular species of ant that the fuzzy lizards also eat. Some caterpillars also can be found in goldenwood trees, but those caterpillars become slightly toxic from feeding on goldenwood leaves. Some fuzzy lizards are able to digest them without trouble, but others become sick if they eat them, and so avoid eating caterpillars in these trees. Goldenwood trees also have very thin, delicate upper branches, and many fuzzy lizards are too large and heavy to climb on those branches, so they must stay in the lower levels of those trees. The smaller fuzzy lizards are able to climb much higher.
Now imagine that many thousands of years have gone by, and this forest has changed a bit. There have been two major changes. First, a new species has arrived in the forest. It is the stalking cat, a feline predator that likes to eat fuzzy lizards. The stalking cat hunts using color vision. It can hunt on the ground or in the trees, but only on the lower branches.
The other change that has occurred is that emeraldeye trees have become extremely rare. In contrast, the forest is full of many, many more goldenwood trees than it used to have.
QUESTION:
Based on natural selection theory, describe (in complete sentences) how fuzzy lizards might have evolved over time in response to these changes in the forest:
First, describe three evolutionary changes, caused by natural selection, that we might expect to see in fuzzy lizards, caused by the changes described above for the forest.
For each of the three changes, start with a specific fuzzy lizard trait already described in the information you were given about fuzzy lizards. Don’t make up traits (for example, don’t start talking about their tails or their sense of hearing, since those things weren’t described above and you don’t know anything about them). Also, be sure you’re talking about inborn traits (features of body or instinctual behaviors) that are relevant to biological evolution.
Describe what the trait was like for fuzzy lizards in the past and say how it may have changed as time went by.
Explain how the change would allow fuzzy lizards to have a better chance at surviving in the new conditions of the forest.
Each change should be addressed as a separate possible evolutionary change in the population. Don’t try to have one change in trait lead to another, or to connect them all together. Treat each one separately.
Please do not go into the steps of natural selection in this section — save that for the next section.
Next, choose one of the evolutionary changes you described above and give a step-by-step description of how the evolution of this new trait would take place according to the theory of natural selection, using the five steps given to you in this class. Be sure to lay out the process in thorough detail and complete clarity, and apply the steps specifically to the trait you’re discussing.

FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS:
You must double-space your paper.
You must write your paper in complete sentences.
There is no official minimum length. However, if your answer is less than about 300 words, it’s likely your answer is not providing an adequate level of detail or explanation. (I tried answering the question myself, and it took 344 words.)
Format your paper as seen below — include the section headers and numbering highlighted in yellow, exactly the way you see here — meaning actually include the words and numbers you see highlighted. (You are not required to highlight them, however. Only do that if you’d like.)
PART ONE: THREE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES
1. (Then write about the first one, as instructed.)
2. (Then write about the second one, as instructed.)
3. (Then write about the third one, as instructed.)
PART TWO: STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION
(Then write about the steps of natural selection, as instructed.)
SUPER-IMPORTANT POINTERS FOR A SUCCESSFUL ANSWER:
You’re trying to demonstrate an understanding of natural selection. If you keep the following in mind, you’ll have a MUCH better chance of scoring well:
REMEMBER FOR PART TWO TO BASE YOUR ANSWER ON THE LECTURE SLIDE SHOWING THE FIVE BASIC STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION. The lecture slides area available in the introduction to this unit. One of the slides in the “Natural Selection” lectures shows how natural selection works in five basic steps. Your description of natural selection should follow those steps. (Please put them in your own words, however.) This is how natural selection works. That’s it. That is how the lizards will evolve. And so……the lizards will not decide to evolve! Some will simply live and reproduce and others will die and not reproduce. Which ones live to reproduce and which ones die will be what drives the evolution of the traits commonly seen in the population as a whole.
…the evolutionary changes will not take place “in order to” help them survive — natural selection does not involve any plan or goal. Traits do not come into existence because they are helpful; first they must already exist in at least one individual and then they spread through the population if they help allow lizards to live longer and thus reproduce more. No one plans it!
…the evolutionary changes will have taken place over a long period of time — think in terms of thousands of years! Natural selection can be the result of small advantages. Don’t feel the need to have every single lizard without an advantageous trait be suddenly killed off! It can take a long time for a trait to spread through or disappear from a population. And remember that individual lizards will not change or evolve at all! It’s the population that evolves over the generations.
…finally, don’t forget that the traits you’re discussing are ones that are inherited biologically! Natural selection is a driver of biological evolution, and biological evolution involves traits that can be passed on from parent to child through reproduction — as we’ll see, through genes. It can’t involve learned behaviors!
Here is the GRADING RUBRIC that will be used to assess your paper.Category: First Evolutionary Change – 4 pointsThis category assesses the first evolutionary change described in the paper, evaluating it based on how clearly it is presented, how logical the change is as a result of natural selection and based on the information about fuzzy lizards and the changes in the forest described in the assignment, and the degree to which the explanation of how the evolutionary change increases the ability of fuzzy lizards to survive is clear, logical, and thorough.4 points: Clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3.5 points: Mostly clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3 points: Only partly clear, logical, or thorough, or not directly based on the information given in the assignment.
2 points: Very significant problems with clarity or logic, or very incomplete.
1 points: Containing only a small amount of relevant material demonstrating any logical or clear response to the assignment.
0 points: No relevant material included.
Category: Second Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Third Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Steps of Natural Selection – 16 pointsThis category assesses part two of the paper, evaluating it for the clarity, thoroughness, and accuracy with which it describes how the process of natural selection would produce — step-by-step, following the steps taught in this course — one of the evolutionary results discussed in the first part of the paper.16 points: Clear, thorough, accurate, and explained in the student’s own words. Clearly following the five steps given in the course material.14 points: Mostly clear, thorough, and accurate, and explained in the student’s own words.12 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Must suggest some understanding of the idea of natural selection.10 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Demonstrates a substantially inaccurate understanding of natural selection.6 points: Very significant problems with clarity, accuracy, and/or thoroughness. Does not demonstrate an accurate understanding of natural selection.3 points: Containing a small amount of relevant or accurate material, but not enough to be awarded a higher score.0 points: No relevant material included.Category: Formatting – 2 pointsThis category assesses the degree to which the submitted assignment follows the formatting requirements described in the assignment, including double-spacing, writing in complete sentences, and including the section headers and numbering required in the order prescribed.2 points: Properly formatted according to instructions.1 point: Not double-spaced; OR not written in complete sentences; OR not including prescribed section headers and/or numbering; OR not presenting the information in the order prescribed in the assignment.0 points: Any combination of two or more of the following: lack of double-spacing; lack of complete sentences; not using the required headers and numbering; not presenting the material in the required order.
PreviousNext
SCENARIO:
Imagine that there’s a species of lizard called fuzzy lizards. They are arboreal insectivores. Their color ranges from pale yellow to dark green, with each individual having a slightly different color within that range of colors. Fuzzy lizards spend their time in two different kinds of trees, emeraldeye trees and goldenwood trees, because it is only on these two kinds of trees that the lizards find the two kinds of insects they eat. Emeraldeye trees have dark green leaves on which can be found caterpillars that the fuzzy lizards like to eat. Goldenwood trees have pale yellow leaves that are home to a particular species of ant that the fuzzy lizards also eat. Some caterpillars also can be found in goldenwood trees, but those caterpillars become slightly toxic from feeding on goldenwood leaves. Some fuzzy lizards are able to digest them without trouble, but others become sick if they eat them, and so avoid eating caterpillars in these trees. Goldenwood trees also have very thin, delicate upper branches, and many fuzzy lizards are too large and heavy to climb on those branches, so they must stay in the lower levels of those trees. The smaller fuzzy lizards are able to climb much higher.
Now imagine that many thousands of years have gone by, and this forest has changed a bit. There have been two major changes. First, a new species has arrived in the forest. It is the stalking cat, a feline predator that likes to eat fuzzy lizards. The stalking cat hunts using color vision. It can hunt on the ground or in the trees, but only on the lower branches.
The other change that has occurred is that emeraldeye trees have become extremely rare. In contrast, the forest is full of many, many more goldenwood trees than it used to have.
QUESTION:
Based on natural selection theory, describe (in complete sentences) how fuzzy lizards might have evolved over time in response to these changes in the forest:
First, describe three evolutionary changes, caused by natural selection, that we might expect to see in fuzzy lizards, caused by the changes described above for the forest.For each of the three changes, start with a specific fuzzy lizard trait already described in the information you were given about fuzzy lizards. Don’t make up traits (for example, don’t start talking about their tails or their sense of hearing, since those things weren’t described above and you don’t know anything about them). Also, be sure you’re talking about inborn traits (features of body or instinctual behaviors) that are relevant to biological evolution.
Describe what the trait was like for fuzzy lizards in the past and say how it may have changed as time went by.
Explain how the change would allow fuzzy lizards to have a better chance at surviving in the new conditions of the forest.
Each change should be addressed as a separate possible evolutionary change in the population. Don’t try to have one change in trait lead to another, or to connect them all together. Treat each one separately.
Please do not go into the steps of natural selection in this section — save that for the next section.
Next, choose one of the evolutionary changes you described above and give a step-by-step description of how the evolution of this new trait would take place according to the theory of natural selection, using the five steps given to you in this class. Be sure to lay out the process in thorough detail and complete clarity, and apply the steps specifically to the trait you’re discussing.

FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS:
You must double-space your paper.
You must write your paper in complete sentences.
There is no official minimum length. However, if your answer is less than about 300 words, it’s likely your answer is not providing an adequate level of detail or explanation. (I tried answering the question myself, and it took 344 words.)
Format your paper as seen below — include the section headers and numbering highlighted in yellow, exactly the way you see here — meaning actually include the words and numbers you see highlighted. (You are not required to highlight them, however. Only do that if you’d like.)
PART ONE: THREE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES
1. (Then write about the first one, as instructed.)
2. (Then write about the second one, as instructed.)
3. (Then write about the third one, as instructed.)
PART TWO: STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION
(Then write about the steps of natural selection, as instructed.)
SUPER-IMPORTANT POINTERS FOR A SUCCESSFUL ANSWER:
You’re trying to demonstrate an understanding of natural selection. If you keep the following in mind, you’ll have a MUCH better chance of scoring well:
REMEMBER FOR PART TWO TO BASE YOUR ANSWER ON THE LECTURE SLIDE SHOWING THE FIVE BASIC STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION. The lecture slides area available in the introduction to this unit. One of the slides in the “Natural Selection” lectures shows how natural selection works in five basic steps. Your description of natural selection should follow those steps. (Please put them in your own words, however.) This is how natural selection works. That’s it. That is how the lizards will evolve. And so……the lizards will not decide to evolve! Some will simply live and reproduce and others will die and not reproduce. Which ones live to reproduce and which ones die will be what drives the evolution of the traits commonly seen in the population as a whole.
…the evolutionary changes will not take place “in order to” help them survive — natural selection does not involve any plan or goal. Traits do not come into existence because they are helpful; first they must already exist in at least one individual and then they spread through the population if they help allow lizards to live longer and thus reproduce more. No one plans it!
…the evolutionary changes will have taken place over a long period of time — think in terms of thousands of years! Natural selection can be the result of small advantages. Don’t feel the need to have every single lizard without an advantageous trait be suddenly killed off! It can take a long time for a trait to spread through or disappear from a population. And remember that individual lizards will not change or evolve at all! It’s the population that evolves over the generations.
…finally, don’t forget that the traits you’re discussing are ones that are inherited biologically! Natural selection is a driver of biological evolution, and biological evolution involves traits that can be passed on from parent to child through reproduction — as we’ll see, through genes. It can’t involve learned behaviors!
Here is the GRADING RUBRIC that will be used to assess your paper.Category: First Evolutionary Change – 4 pointsThis category assesses the first evolutionary change described in the paper, evaluating it based on how clearly it is presented, how logical the change is as a result of natural selection and based on the information about fuzzy lizards and the changes in the forest described in the assignment, and the degree to which the explanation of how the evolutionary change increases the ability of fuzzy lizards to survive is clear, logical, and thorough.4 points: Clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3.5 points: Mostly clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3 points: Only partly clear, logical, or thorough, or not directly based on the information given in the assignment.
2 points: Very significant problems with clarity or logic, or very incomplete.
1 points: Containing only a small amount of relevant material demonstrating any logical or clear response to the assignment.
0 points: No relevant material included.
Category: Second Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Third Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Steps of Natural Selection – 16 pointsThis category assesses part two of the paper, evaluating it for the clarity, thoroughness, and accuracy with which it describes how the process of natural selection would produce — step-by-step, following the steps taught in this course — one of the evolutionary results discussed in the first part of the paper.16 points: Clear, thorough, accurate, and explained in the student’s own words. Clearly following the five steps given in the course material.14 points: Mostly clear, thorough, and accurate, and explained in the student’s own words.12 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Must suggest some understanding of the idea of natural selection.10 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Demonstrates a substantially inaccurate understanding of natural selection.6 points: Very significant problems with clarity, accuracy, and/or thoroughness. Does not demonstrate an accurate understanding of natural selection.3 points: Containing a small amount of relevant or accurate material, but not enough to be awarded a higher score.0 points: No relevant material included.Category: Formatting – 2 pointsThis category assesses the degree to which the submitted assignment follows the formatting requirements described in the assignment, including double-spacing, writing in complete sentences, and including the section headers and numbering required in the order prescribed.2 points: Properly formatted according to instructions.1 point: Not double-spaced; OR not written in complete sentences; OR not including prescribed section headers and/or numbering; OR not presenting the information in the order prescribed in the assignment.0 points: Any combination of two or more of the following: lack of double-spacing; lack of complete sentences; not using the required headers and numbering; not presenting the material in the required orde
FIVE STEPS
1. Individuals within a population are born with slightly different traits.The basic idea is just that individuals are different from each other, even though they are the same kind of thing, members of the same species. You and your sister, or you and your friend, are both humans, but you’re not exactly the same as each other, biologically. You are individuals.To repeat, because this is really important: when we say they are “within a population,” we mean that the individuals we’re comparing are members of the same species. So, we can compare one human compared to another; one green sea turtle to another; one ponderosa pine tree to another; one monarch butterfly to another; and so on. We’re not comparing the traits of a human to the traits of a butterfly, or the traits of a pine tree to those of a sea turtle!Natural selection focuses on what happens within a population of members of the same species.Also, we’re comparing traits that individuals are born with – which, as we’ll see in this class, ultimately means we’re talking about comparing their genes, their DNA. Not all humans have the exact same DNA (in fact, only identical twins have the same DNA); not all ponderosa pine trees have the exact same DNA.As long as there are even some slight variations within a population – and there always are – this statement is true. To challenge it, you’d have to argue that every individual is exactly the same as every other individual. I’m sure you don’t believe that
.2. Some traits lead to a better chance at longer survival than other traits.The basic idea is just that some traits are helpful for surviving.Notice it just says “some” traits. It doesn’t say every trait is either bad or good. Not at all. It just says that some traits can be more helpful for survival than other traits.Here is an easy example:Trait A: a fully functioning heartTrait B: a defective heartTrait A obviously gives a better chance for longer survival than trait B! There is no denying that!Notice that a “better” trait like this doesn’t guarantee longer survival. An individual with a fully functioning heart could get hit by a meteor a minute after they are born! This is why the statement says “better chance.”The idea is that all other things being equal, having the fully functional heart makes a longer life more likely than having a defective heart. If you took 100 people with fully functioning hearts and 100 people with defective hearts, all of them 20 years old, and then waited 20 years, which group would have more members still alive? The ones with fully functioning hearts!While in that example it is very obvious which trait is better, notice that the statement itself does not tell us which traits are better (which traits give a better chance at longer life). It doesn’t say being bigger is always better, of being more aggressive, or meaner, or nicer, or more beautiful, or even smarter. It just says that sometimes, some traits do give a better chance at a longer life.Maybe it’s being taller that gives that better chance. (Think back to the giraffe example from lecture.) But maybe it’s being shorter! Maybe it’s having a certain blood type. Maybe it’s having darker skin. Maybe it’s having fewer toes. It can be anything. But the simple, basic, undeniable idea here is that there will always be some traits that can give that better chance at living longer in a particular environment, given particular challenges at a particular point in time – even if it’s only a slightly better chance. In the long run, individuals with that trait will, on average, live longer.So, we’ve seen that individuals within a population are different from each other, and that some of those differences may give some individuals a better chance at a longer life than other individuals.How can you deny that these statements are true? I’d suggest that you can’t argue with them at all!Please click on the “3” tab above.
3. Individuals that survive longer will tend to reproduce more (have more offspring) than individuals that die sooner.The basic idea is just that, all other things being equal, being alive for a longer time allows for more offspring than being alive a shorter time.Why “all other things being equal”? Because being alive a longer time doesn’t guarantee having more offspring! Notice the statement doesn’t say that living longer always leads to having more offspring! It just says that in terms of this one thing – living a longer life vs. living a shorter life – who is more likely to have more offspring? Those that live a longer life, of course!Let’s go back to our example of 100 people, 20-years of age, with fully functioning hearts and 100 people of the same age with defective hearts. We said that more of the people with defective hearts would have died after 20 years passed. So, which group will have more children when they are all 40 years old? Almost certainly the group with fully functioning hearts! More of them would have lived through their thirties and had more chances to reproduce. Not all of them would have, and some of them would have lived and not had babies. But overall, living longer gives you a better chance to reproduce than dying younger. That’s all this statement says.Remember, this is all about comparing individuals of the same species, not about comparing frogs to parakeets or lions to lambs or something like that.And, this is about comparing how many offspring individuals have over the course of their entire lives, by the time they die. We’re not talking about how many babies people have at different ages. All that matters is counting how many they’ve had, total, by the time they die.Let’s give a slightly different example to make sure this is extra clear. Sticking to a human example again, we can note that those who die at age 3 will have, on average, exactly 0 offspring. Those who die at age 20 will, on average, have very few offspring – but will have more, on average than those who die at age 3! Those who die at age 40 will, on average, have more offspring than those who died at age 20. And the reason is that they were alive longer, and had more chance to reproduce.Living longer does not guarantee having more offspring – and the statement doesn’t say that it does. It simply notes that there will be this overall tendency for those who are alive longer.(By the way, it’s true that with humans, especially human women, once you reach a certain age you’re unlikely to have more children. Living to 100 may not allow you to have any more children than living to 50. This is in part because humans are unusual. Most other animals keep reproducing until they die. But, in any case, this still doesn’t contradict the overall trend that longer life is generally correlated with more offspring than shorter life.)All of this comes down to a very simple idea: you have to be alive in order to reproduce! That’s it. It’s just observing that fact.So, far, having gone through three statements, I don’t see how it’s possible to deny the truth of any of them.Please click on the “4” tab above.PreviousNext
4. Parents tend to pass on their traits to their offspring.The basic idea is just…well, just what it says. Offspring are inheriting traits from parents! Eventually, we’ll be talking about this more in terms of genes than traits, and the real idea here is about biological traits, ones that are inherited through DNA. But the idea is the same. Offspring get their traits from their genes, and the genes come from their parents.The reason humans give birth to humans and not to tigers, and tigers give birth to tigers and not to palm trees, is because parents are passing on their traits. Humans pass on human traits. Pretty hard to deny!But let’s just limit ourselves to within a species. Is a human child going to be more similar to its parents than it is to some other, random human. Yes, you know it will! You know that you inherited many biological traits from your biological parents and are more similar to them, biologically, than you are to your friend’s parents.Just in terms of looks, you know this is true. Do you look more like your biological father or do you look more like me? I bet you look more like your biological father!Who is more likely to have blond hair? The child of two blond people or the child of two black-haired people? You know the answer!And this isn’t just about looks. It’s about all kinds of biological traits, many of which are things we can’t see on the surface. (Think about things like blood type.)Notice that the statement does not say that a child is going to be exactly the same as a parent.As long as there is some degree to which offspring are getting traits from their parents, rather than at random, the statement is true.It’s obviously true.Please click on the “5” tab above.PreviousNext
5. If 1-4 are true, it must therefore be true that, as generations go by, traits that lead to better chance at survival will tend to become more common in the population, and therefore the population will change (evolve) toward having those traits.This one is a bit different because it’s more of a statement of logic rather than fact. It tells you that if the previous four statements are all true – and I think we’ve established that they are all true! – then, logically, we will get this result.So, let’s walk through it, going back to our giraffe example – but I’m going to change what trait we discuss.We start with giraffes.Is every giraffe exactly the same as every other giraffe? No. (Statement 1). There are all sorts of little, individual differences between one giraffe and the next. Some are taller than others, for example. But there are lots of little biological differences we don’t see as well.Will some traits that vary from one giraffe to the next give some giraffes a better chance at surviving longer? Yes, they will. (Statement 2). In the example I want to give now, however, it’s not height. Let’s say all giraffes are tall enough to reach plenty of food. But, there is a slight difference in the way the immune systems work in some giraffes. This is based on a particular gene they inherited. In the past in made no difference. But now…a new disease has come along. It’s the giraffe covid, I guess, but it’s even more deadly and it spreads rapidly through the entire population of giraffes. We’ll call it govid. Some giraffes happen to have this immune system that is better at fighting off govid. Giraffes with the usual immune system die from govid about 90% of the time they get it. Giraffes with this other, slightly different immune system, die from govid only about 20% of the time they get it. It’s a good trait to have! But only 10% of the population has this trait.Notice that giraffes with the “better” immune system are not guaranteed to live longer! They may still die of govid. Or they may die of other things! And giraffes with the regular immune system may survive because they don’t get govid or because they just manage to survive it anyway. But, on average, those with the “good” immune system have a better chance to live longer, for sure!On average, which giraffes will have more offspring – the ones with the “better” immune system or the ones with the “worse” one? Obviously, the ones with the better immune system. (Statement 3). Are they guaranteed to always have more offspring? No. But, on average, they do, because they are more likely to survive govid and go on to have more babies!When new giraffe babies are born, which ones have the best chance of being born with the “good” immune system? Is it babies born to a parent that has the good immune system or babies born to parents that don’t have it? Babies born to a parent(s) that has the good immune system are more likely to have the good immune system themselves because they get their traits, including their immune systems, for their parents. (Statement 4). (Notice that they are not necessarily guaranteed to inherit the good immune system.)So, in our example, 1-4 have been true. Statement 5 says our result should be that we start seeing a larger percentage of the population have a good immune system. This is obviously true because most of the giraffes with the regular immune system are dying off and no longer reproducing. Meanwhile, most giraffes with the good immune system trait are continuing to live and reproduce, and many of their offspring will inherit the good immune system trait, too. And they live on to reproduce and pass it on to their offspring. The ones that don’t inherit it…will frequently die at a young age of govid and not ever get a chance to reproduce.When govid started, only 10 percent of the giraffe population had the “good” immune trait. But after time passes, we’re going to see that an increasingly larger percentage of the giraffe population is being born with the good immune system. It simply has to be the case because that trait is allowing giraffes to survive and therefore allowing them to reproduce, and traits are often passed down when reproducing occurs. It’s the logical conclusion.So, maybe after 20 years we find that 80% of the population has the good immune system trait, instead of the 10% of the population that had it before.That change is what we call “evolution.” And what caused this evolution? Natural selection!Finally, replay this same story in your mind, but change the numbers. Maybe the average giraffe has a 15% chance of dying from govid, while the ones with the “good” immune system trait have only a 10% chance of dying from govid. This small difference may more realistic. But the exact same process will occur. It will just take longer for it to cause the population to evolve. Maybe after 20 years the percentage of the population with the good immune trait might rise from 10% to 12%. That’s still what we call “evolution”! A larger percentage of the population has this trait than before.In most cases, natural selection causes significant changes to a population (evolution) that plays out over thousands of years. To get one species to change enough that it evolves into a different species entirely takes at least hundreds of thousands of years, and often millions of years.I hope this breakdown of the steps has helped. If you’re still confused at all, NOW is the time to get help from your instructor!If you have gone through all the tabs above, you may now click “Next”to move on to the next item in the Module.PreviousNext

Categories
Anthropology

That is how the lizards will evolve.

Learning Goal: I’m working on a anthropology writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
SCENARIO:
Imagine that there’s a species of lizard called fuzzy lizards. They are arboreal insectivores. Their color ranges from pale yellow to dark green, with each individual having a slightly different color within that range of colors. Fuzzy lizards spend their time in two different kinds of trees, emeraldeye trees and goldenwood trees, because it is only on these two kinds of trees that the lizards find the two kinds of insects they eat. Emeraldeye trees have dark green leaves on which can be found caterpillars that the fuzzy lizards like to eat. Goldenwood trees have pale yellow leaves that are home to a particular species of ant that the fuzzy lizards also eat. Some caterpillars also can be found in goldenwood trees, but those caterpillars become slightly toxic from feeding on goldenwood leaves. Some fuzzy lizards are able to digest them without trouble, but others become sick if they eat them, and so avoid eating caterpillars in these trees. Goldenwood trees also have very thin, delicate upper branches, and many fuzzy lizards are too large and heavy to climb on those branches, so they must stay in the lower levels of those trees. The smaller fuzzy lizards are able to climb much higher.
Now imagine that many thousands of years have gone by, and this forest has changed a bit. There have been two major changes. First, a new species has arrived in the forest. It is the stalking cat, a feline predator that likes to eat fuzzy lizards. The stalking cat hunts using color vision. It can hunt on the ground or in the trees, but only on the lower branches.
The other change that has occurred is that emeraldeye trees have become extremely rare. In contrast, the forest is full of many, many more goldenwood trees than it used to have.
QUESTION:
Based on natural selection theory, describe (in complete sentences) how fuzzy lizards might have evolved over time in response to these changes in the forest:
First, describe three evolutionary changes, caused by natural selection, that we might expect to see in fuzzy lizards, caused by the changes described above for the forest.
For each of the three changes, start with a specific fuzzy lizard trait already described in the information you were given about fuzzy lizards. Don’t make up traits (for example, don’t start talking about their tails or their sense of hearing, since those things weren’t described above and you don’t know anything about them). Also, be sure you’re talking about inborn traits (features of body or instinctual behaviors) that are relevant to biological evolution.
Describe what the trait was like for fuzzy lizards in the past and say how it may have changed as time went by.
Explain how the change would allow fuzzy lizards to have a better chance at surviving in the new conditions of the forest.
Each change should be addressed as a separate possible evolutionary change in the population. Don’t try to have one change in trait lead to another, or to connect them all together. Treat each one separately.
Please do not go into the steps of natural selection in this section — save that for the next section.
Next, choose one of the evolutionary changes you described above and give a step-by-step description of how the evolution of this new trait would take place according to the theory of natural selection, using the five steps given to you in this class. Be sure to lay out the process in thorough detail and complete clarity, and apply the steps specifically to the trait you’re discussing.

FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS:
You must double-space your paper.
You must write your paper in complete sentences.
There is no official minimum length. However, if your answer is less than about 300 words, it’s likely your answer is not providing an adequate level of detail or explanation. (I tried answering the question myself, and it took 344 words.)
Format your paper as seen below — include the section headers and numbering highlighted in yellow, exactly the way you see here — meaning actually include the words and numbers you see highlighted. (You are not required to highlight them, however. Only do that if you’d like.)
PART ONE: THREE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES
1. (Then write about the first one, as instructed.)
2. (Then write about the second one, as instructed.)
3. (Then write about the third one, as instructed.)
PART TWO: STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION
(Then write about the steps of natural selection, as instructed.)
SUPER-IMPORTANT POINTERS FOR A SUCCESSFUL ANSWER:
You’re trying to demonstrate an understanding of natural selection. If you keep the following in mind, you’ll have a MUCH better chance of scoring well:
REMEMBER FOR PART TWO TO BASE YOUR ANSWER ON THE LECTURE SLIDE SHOWING THE FIVE BASIC STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION. The lecture slides area available in the introduction to this unit. One of the slides in the “Natural Selection” lectures shows how natural selection works in five basic steps. Your description of natural selection should follow those steps. (Please put them in your own words, however.) This is how natural selection works. That’s it. That is how the lizards will evolve. And so……the lizards will not decide to evolve! Some will simply live and reproduce and others will die and not reproduce. Which ones live to reproduce and which ones die will be what drives the evolution of the traits commonly seen in the population as a whole.
…the evolutionary changes will not take place “in order to” help them survive — natural selection does not involve any plan or goal. Traits do not come into existence because they are helpful; first they must already exist in at least one individual and then they spread through the population if they help allow lizards to live longer and thus reproduce more. No one plans it!
…the evolutionary changes will have taken place over a long period of time — think in terms of thousands of years! Natural selection can be the result of small advantages. Don’t feel the need to have every single lizard without an advantageous trait be suddenly killed off! It can take a long time for a trait to spread through or disappear from a population. And remember that individual lizards will not change or evolve at all! It’s the population that evolves over the generations.
…finally, don’t forget that the traits you’re discussing are ones that are inherited biologically! Natural selection is a driver of biological evolution, and biological evolution involves traits that can be passed on from parent to child through reproduction — as we’ll see, through genes. It can’t involve learned behaviors!
Here is the GRADING RUBRIC that will be used to assess your paper.Category: First Evolutionary Change – 4 pointsThis category assesses the first evolutionary change described in the paper, evaluating it based on how clearly it is presented, how logical the change is as a result of natural selection and based on the information about fuzzy lizards and the changes in the forest described in the assignment, and the degree to which the explanation of how the evolutionary change increases the ability of fuzzy lizards to survive is clear, logical, and thorough.4 points: Clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3.5 points: Mostly clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3 points: Only partly clear, logical, or thorough, or not directly based on the information given in the assignment.
2 points: Very significant problems with clarity or logic, or very incomplete.
1 points: Containing only a small amount of relevant material demonstrating any logical or clear response to the assignment.
0 points: No relevant material included.
Category: Second Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Third Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Steps of Natural Selection – 16 pointsThis category assesses part two of the paper, evaluating it for the clarity, thoroughness, and accuracy with which it describes how the process of natural selection would produce — step-by-step, following the steps taught in this course — one of the evolutionary results discussed in the first part of the paper.16 points: Clear, thorough, accurate, and explained in the student’s own words. Clearly following the five steps given in the course material.14 points: Mostly clear, thorough, and accurate, and explained in the student’s own words.12 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Must suggest some understanding of the idea of natural selection.10 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Demonstrates a substantially inaccurate understanding of natural selection.6 points: Very significant problems with clarity, accuracy, and/or thoroughness. Does not demonstrate an accurate understanding of natural selection.3 points: Containing a small amount of relevant or accurate material, but not enough to be awarded a higher score.0 points: No relevant material included.Category: Formatting – 2 pointsThis category assesses the degree to which the submitted assignment follows the formatting requirements described in the assignment, including double-spacing, writing in complete sentences, and including the section headers and numbering required in the order prescribed.2 points: Properly formatted according to instructions.1 point: Not double-spaced; OR not written in complete sentences; OR not including prescribed section headers and/or numbering; OR not presenting the information in the order prescribed in the assignment.0 points: Any combination of two or more of the following: lack of double-spacing; lack of complete sentences; not using the required headers and numbering; not presenting the material in the required order.
PreviousNext

Categories
Anthropology

Your description of natural selection should follow those steps.

Learning Goal: I’m working on a anthropology writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
SCENARIO:
Imagine that there’s a species of lizard called fuzzy lizards. They are arboreal insectivores. Their color ranges from pale yellow to dark green, with each individual having a slightly different color within that range of colors. Fuzzy lizards spend their time in two different kinds of trees, emeraldeye trees and goldenwood trees, because it is only on these two kinds of trees that the lizards find the two kinds of insects they eat. Emeraldeye trees have dark green leaves on which can be found caterpillars that the fuzzy lizards like to eat. Goldenwood trees have pale yellow leaves that are home to a particular species of ant that the fuzzy lizards also eat. Some caterpillars also can be found in goldenwood trees, but those caterpillars become slightly toxic from feeding on goldenwood leaves. Some fuzzy lizards are able to digest them without trouble, but others become sick if they eat them, and so avoid eating caterpillars in these trees. Goldenwood trees also have very thin, delicate upper branches, and many fuzzy lizards are too large and heavy to climb on those branches, so they must stay in the lower levels of those trees. The smaller fuzzy lizards are able to climb much higher.
Now imagine that many thousands of years have gone by, and this forest has changed a bit. There have been two major changes. First, a new species has arrived in the forest. It is the stalking cat, a feline predator that likes to eat fuzzy lizards. The stalking cat hunts using color vision. It can hunt on the ground or in the trees, but only on the lower branches.
The other change that has occurred is that emeraldeye trees have become extremely rare. In contrast, the forest is full of many, many more goldenwood trees than it used to have.
QUESTION:
Based on natural selection theory, describe (in complete sentences) how fuzzy lizards might have evolved over time in response to these changes in the forest:
First, describe three evolutionary changes, caused by natural selection, that we might expect to see in fuzzy lizards, caused by the changes described above for the forest.
For each of the three changes, start with a specific fuzzy lizard trait already described in the information you were given about fuzzy lizards. Don’t make up traits (for example, don’t start talking about their tails or their sense of hearing, since those things weren’t described above and you don’t know anything about them). Also, be sure you’re talking about inborn traits (features of body or instinctual behaviors) that are relevant to biological evolution.
Describe what the trait was like for fuzzy lizards in the past and say how it may have changed as time went by.
Explain how the change would allow fuzzy lizards to have a better chance at surviving in the new conditions of the forest.
Each change should be addressed as a separate possible evolutionary change in the population. Don’t try to have one change in trait lead to another, or to connect them all together. Treat each one separately.
Please do not go into the steps of natural selection in this section — save that for the next section.
Next, choose one of the evolutionary changes you described above and give a step-by-step description of how the evolution of this new trait would take place according to the theory of natural selection, using the five steps given to you in this class. Be sure to lay out the process in thorough detail and complete clarity, and apply the steps specifically to the trait you’re discussing.

FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS:
You must double-space your paper.
You must write your paper in complete sentences.
There is no official minimum length. However, if your answer is less than about 300 words, it’s likely your answer is not providing an adequate level of detail or explanation. (I tried answering the question myself, and it took 344 words.)
Format your paper as seen below — include the section headers and numbering highlighted in yellow, exactly the way you see here — meaning actually include the words and numbers you see highlighted. (You are not required to highlight them, however. Only do that if you’d like.)
PART ONE: THREE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES
1. (Then write about the first one, as instructed.)
2. (Then write about the second one, as instructed.)
3. (Then write about the third one, as instructed.)
PART TWO: STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION
(Then write about the steps of natural selection, as instructed.)
SUPER-IMPORTANT POINTERS FOR A SUCCESSFUL ANSWER:
You’re trying to demonstrate an understanding of natural selection. If you keep the following in mind, you’ll have a MUCH better chance of scoring well:
REMEMBER FOR PART TWO TO BASE YOUR ANSWER ON THE LECTURE SLIDE SHOWING THE FIVE BASIC STEPS OF NATURAL SELECTION. The lecture slides area available in the introduction to this unit. One of the slides in the “Natural Selection” lectures shows how natural selection works in five basic steps. Your description of natural selection should follow those steps. (Please put them in your own words, however.) This is how natural selection works. That’s it. That is how the lizards will evolve. And so……the lizards will not decide to evolve! Some will simply live and reproduce and others will die and not reproduce. Which ones live to reproduce and which ones die will be what drives the evolution of the traits commonly seen in the population as a whole.
…the evolutionary changes will not take place “in order to” help them survive — natural selection does not involve any plan or goal. Traits do not come into existence because they are helpful; first they must already exist in at least one individual and then they spread through the population if they help allow lizards to live longer and thus reproduce more. No one plans it!
…the evolutionary changes will have taken place over a long period of time — think in terms of thousands of years! Natural selection can be the result of small advantages. Don’t feel the need to have every single lizard without an advantageous trait be suddenly killed off! It can take a long time for a trait to spread through or disappear from a population. And remember that individual lizards will not change or evolve at all! It’s the population that evolves over the generations.
…finally, don’t forget that the traits you’re discussing are ones that are inherited biologically! Natural selection is a driver of biological evolution, and biological evolution involves traits that can be passed on from parent to child through reproduction — as we’ll see, through genes. It can’t involve learned behaviors!
Here is the GRADING RUBRIC that will be used to assess your paper.Category: First Evolutionary Change – 4 pointsThis category assesses the first evolutionary change described in the paper, evaluating it based on how clearly it is presented, how logical the change is as a result of natural selection and based on the information about fuzzy lizards and the changes in the forest described in the assignment, and the degree to which the explanation of how the evolutionary change increases the ability of fuzzy lizards to survive is clear, logical, and thorough.4 points: Clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3.5 points: Mostly clear, logical, thorough, and based on the information given in the assignment.
3 points: Only partly clear, logical, or thorough, or not directly based on the information given in the assignment.
2 points: Very significant problems with clarity or logic, or very incomplete.
1 points: Containing only a small amount of relevant material demonstrating any logical or clear response to the assignment.
0 points: No relevant material included.
Category: Second Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Third Evolutionary Change – 4 points(same criteria and point categories as for First Evolutionary Change category)Category: Steps of Natural Selection – 16 pointsThis category assesses part two of the paper, evaluating it for the clarity, thoroughness, and accuracy with which it describes how the process of natural selection would produce — step-by-step, following the steps taught in this course — one of the evolutionary results discussed in the first part of the paper.16 points: Clear, thorough, accurate, and explained in the student’s own words. Clearly following the five steps given in the course material.14 points: Mostly clear, thorough, and accurate, and explained in the student’s own words.12 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Must suggest some understanding of the idea of natural selection.10 points: Only partly clear, partly thorough, and/or partly accurate; OR not directly based on one of the evolutionary changes discussed in the first half of the paper. Demonstrates a substantially inaccurate understanding of natural selection.6 points: Very significant problems with clarity, accuracy, and/or thoroughness. Does not demonstrate an accurate understanding of natural selection.3 points: Containing a small amount of relevant or accurate material, but not enough to be awarded a higher score.0 points: No relevant material included.Category: Formatting – 2 pointsThis category assesses the degree to which the submitted assignment follows the formatting requirements described in the assignment, including double-spacing, writing in complete sentences, and including the section headers and numbering required in the order prescribed.2 points: Properly formatted according to instructions.1 point: Not double-spaced; OR not written in complete sentences; OR not including prescribed section headers and/or numbering; OR not presenting the information in the order prescribed in the assignment.0 points: Any combination of two or more of the following: lack of double-spacing; lack of complete sentences; not using the required headers and numbering; not presenting the material in the required order.
5 STEPS
1. Individuals within a population are born with slightly different traits.The basic idea is just that individuals are different from each other, even though they are the same kind of thing, members of the same species. You and your sister, or you and your friend, are both humans, but you’re not exactly the same as each other, biologically. You are individuals.To repeat, because this is really important: when we say they are “within a population,” we mean that the individuals we’re comparing are members of the same species. So, we can compare one human compared to another; one green sea turtle to another; one ponderosa pine tree to another; one monarch butterfly to another; and so on. We’re not comparing the traits of a human to the traits of a butterfly, or the traits of a pine tree to those of a sea turtle!Natural selection focuses on what happens within a population of members of the same species.Also, we’re comparing traits that individuals are born with – which, as we’ll see in this class, ultimately means we’re talking about comparing their genes, their DNA. Not all humans have the exact same DNA (in fact, only identical twins have the same DNA); not all ponderosa pine trees have the exact same DNA.As long as there are even some slight variations within a population – and there always are – this statement is true. To challenge it, you’d have to argue that every individual is exactly the same as every other individual. I’m sure you don’t believe that.
2. Some traits lead to a better chance at longer survival than other traits.The basic idea is just that some traits are helpful for surviving.Notice it just says “some” traits. It doesn’t say every trait is either bad or good. Not at all. It just says that some traits can be more helpful for survival than other traits.Here is an easy example:Trait A: a fully functioning heartTrait B: a defective heartTrait A obviously gives a better chance for longer survival than trait B! There is no denying that!Notice that a “better” trait like this doesn’t guarantee longer survival. An individual with a fully functioning heart could get hit by a meteor a minute after they are born! This is why the statement says “better chance.”The idea is that all other things being equal, having the fully functional heart makes a longer life more likely than having a defective heart. If you took 100 people with fully functioning hearts and 100 people with defective hearts, all of them 20 years old, and then waited 20 years, which group would have more members still alive? The ones with fully functioning hearts!While in that example it is very obvious which trait is better, notice that the statement itself does not tell us which traits are better (which traits give a better chance at longer life). It doesn’t say being bigger is always better, of being more aggressive, or meaner, or nicer, or more beautiful, or even smarter. It just says that sometimes, some traits do give a better chance at a longer life.Maybe it’s being taller that gives that better chance. (Think back to the giraffe example from lecture.) But maybe it’s being shorter! Maybe it’s having a certain blood type. Maybe it’s having darker skin. Maybe it’s having fewer toes. It can be anything. But the simple, basic, undeniable idea here is that there will always be some traits that can give that better chance at living longer in a particular environment, given particular challenges at a particular point in time – even if it’s only a slightly better chance. In the long run, individuals with that trait will, on average, live longer.So, we’ve seen that individuals within a population are different from each other, and that some of those differences may give some individuals a better chance at a longer life than other individuals.How can you deny that these statements are true? I’d suggest that you can’t argue with them at all!
3. Individuals that survive longer will tend to reproduce more (have more offspring) than individuals that die sooner.The basic idea is just that, all other things being equal, being alive for a longer time allows for more offspring than being alive a shorter time.Why “all other things being equal”? Because being alive a longer time doesn’t guarantee having more offspring! Notice the statement doesn’t say that living longer always leads to having more offspring! It just says that in terms of this one thing – living a longer life vs. living a shorter life – who is more likely to have more offspring? Those that live a longer life, of course!Let’s go back to our example of 100 people, 20-years of age, with fully functioning hearts and 100 people of the same age with defective hearts. We said that more of the people with defective hearts would have died after 20 years passed. So, which group will have more children when they are all 40 years old? Almost certainly the group with fully functioning hearts! More of them would have lived through their thirties and had more chances to reproduce. Not all of them would have, and some of them would have lived and not had babies. But overall, living longer gives you a better chance to reproduce than dying younger. That’s all this statement says.Remember, this is all about comparing individuals of the same species, not about comparing frogs to parakeets or lions to lambs or something like that.And, this is about comparing how many offspring individuals have over the course of their entire lives, by the time they die. We’re not talking about how many babies people have at different ages. All that matters is counting how many they’ve had, total, by the time they die.Let’s give a slightly different example to make sure this is extra clear. Sticking to a human example again, we can note that those who die at age 3 will have, on average, exactly 0 offspring. Those who die at age 20 will, on average, have very few offspring – but will have more, on average than those who die at age 3! Those who die at age 40 will, on average, have more offspring than those who died at age 20. And the reason is that they were alive longer, and had more chance to reproduce.Living longer does not guarantee having more offspring – and the statement doesn’t say that it does. It simply notes that there will be this overall tendency for those who are alive longer.(By the way, it’s true that with humans, especially human women, once you reach a certain age you’re unlikely to have more children. Living to 100 may not allow you to have any more children than living to 50. This is in part because humans are unusual. Most other animals keep reproducing until they die. But, in any case, this still doesn’t contradict the overall trend that longer life is generally correlated with more offspring than shorter life.)All of this comes down to a very simple idea: you have to be alive in order to reproduce! That’s it. It’s just observing that fact.So, far, having gone through three statements, I don’t see how it’s possible to deny the truth of any of them
.4. Parents tend to pass on their traits to their offspring.The basic idea is just…well, just what it says. Offspring are inheriting traits from parents! Eventually, we’ll be talking about this more in terms of genes than traits, and the real idea here is about biological traits, ones that are inherited through DNA. But the idea is the same. Offspring get their traits from their genes, and the genes come from their parents.The reason humans give birth to humans and not to tigers, and tigers give birth to tigers and not to palm trees, is because parents are passing on their traits. Humans pass on human traits. Pretty hard to deny!But let’s just limit ourselves to within a species. Is a human child going to be more similar to its parents than it is to some other, random human. Yes, you know it will! You know that you inherited many biological traits from your biological parents and are more similar to them, biologically, than you are to your friend’s parents.Just in terms of looks, you know this is true. Do you look more like your biological father or do you look more like me? I bet you look more like your biological father!Who is more likely to have blond hair? The child of two blond people or the child of two black-haired people? You know the answer!And this isn’t just about looks. It’s about all kinds of biological traits, many of which are things we can’t see on the surface. (Think about things like blood type.)Notice that the statement does not say that a child is going to be exactly the same as a parent.As long as there is some degree to which offspring are getting traits from their parents, rather than at random, the statement is true.It’s obviously true.
5. If 1-4 are true, it must therefore be true that, as generations go by, traits that lead to better chance at survival will tend to become more common in the population, and therefore the population will change (evolve) toward having those traits.This one is a bit different because it’s more of a statement of logic rather than fact. It tells you that if the previous four statements are all true – and I think we’ve established that they are all true! – then, logically, we will get this result.So, let’s walk through it, going back to our giraffe example – but I’m going to change what trait we discuss.We start with giraffes.Is every giraffe exactly the same as every other giraffe? No. (Statement 1). There are all sorts of little, individual differences between one giraffe and the next. Some are taller than others, for example. But there are lots of little biological differences we don’t see as well.Will some traits that vary from one giraffe to the next give some giraffes a better chance at surviving longer? Yes, they will. (Statement 2). In the example I want to give now, however, it’s not height. Let’s say all giraffes are tall enough to reach plenty of food. But, there is a slight difference in the way the immune systems work in some giraffes. This is based on a particular gene they inherited. In the past in made no difference. But now…a new disease has come along. It’s the giraffe covid, I guess, but it’s even more deadly and it spreads rapidly through the entire population of giraffes. We’ll call it govid. Some giraffes happen to have this immune system that is better at fighting off govid. Giraffes with the usual immune system die from govid about 90% of the time they get it. Giraffes with this other, slightly different immune system, die from govid only about 20% of the time they get it. It’s a good trait to have! But only 10% of the population has this trait.Notice that giraffes with the “better” immune system are not guaranteed to live longer! They may still die of govid. Or they may die of other things! And giraffes with the regular immune system may survive because they don’t get govid or because they just manage to survive it anyway. But, on average, those with the “good” immune system have a better chance to live longer, for sure!On average, which giraffes will have more offspring – the ones with the “better” immune system or the ones with the “worse” one? Obviously, the ones with the better immune system. (Statement 3). Are they guaranteed to always have more offspring? No. But, on average, they do, because they are more likely to survive govid and go on to have more babies!When new giraffe babies are born, which ones have the best chance of being born with the “good” immune system? Is it babies born to a parent that has the good immune system or babies born to parents that don’t have it? Babies born to a parent(s) that has the good immune system are more likely to have the good immune system themselves because they get their traits, including their immune systems, for their parents. (Statement 4). (Notice that they are not necessarily guaranteed to inherit the good immune system.)So, in our example, 1-4 have been true. Statement 5 says our result should be that we start seeing a larger percentage of the population have a good immune system. This is obviously true because most of the giraffes with the regular immune system are dying off and no longer reproducing. Meanwhile, most giraffes with the good immune system trait are continuing to live and reproduce, and many of their offspring will inherit the good immune system trait, too. And they live on to reproduce and pass it on to their offspring. The ones that don’t inherit it…will frequently die at a young age of govid and not ever get a chance to reproduce.When govid started, only 10 percent of the giraffe population had the “good” immune trait. But after time passes, we’re going to see that an increasingly larger percentage of the giraffe population is being born with the good immune system. It simply has to be the case because that trait is allowing giraffes to survive and therefore allowing them to reproduce, and traits are often passed down when reproducing occurs. It’s the logical conclusion.So, maybe after 20 years we find that 80% of the population has the good immune system trait, instead of the 10% of the population that had it before.That change is what we call “evolution.” And what caused this evolution? Natural selection!Finally, replay this same story in your mind, but change the numbers. Maybe the average giraffe has a 15% chance of dying from govid, while the ones with the “good” immune system trait have only a 10% chance of dying from govid. This small difference may more realistic. But the exact same process will occur. It will just take longer for it to cause the population to evolve. Maybe after 20 years the percentage of the population with the good immune trait might rise from 10% to 12%. That’s still what we call “evolution”! A larger percentage of the population has this trait than before.In most cases, natural selection causes significant changes to a population (evolution) that plays out over thousands of years. To get one species to change enough that it evolves into a different species entirely takes at least hundreds of thousands of years, and often millions of years.

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Anthropology

You should summarize the reading, discuss your thoughts on it and reflect on how it applies in life or situations.

Learning Goal: I’m working on a anthropology writing question and need a sample publish to help me learn.
You will summarize and discuss the reading for Chapter 5 (pg. 103-118). The reading reflection should be a page or two. You should summarize the reading, discuss your thoughts on it and reflect on how it applies in life or situations.